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    H.264標準

    簡介
            H.264是國際標準化組織(ISO)和國際電信聯盟(ITU)共同提出的繼MPEG4之后的新一代數字視頻壓縮格式。H.264是ITU-T以H.26x系列為名稱命名的視頻編解碼技術標準之一。H.264是ITU-T的VCEG(視頻編碼專家組)和ISO/IEC的MPEG(活動圖像編碼專家組)的聯合視頻組(JVT:joint video team)開發的一個數字視頻編碼標準。該標準最早來自于ITU-T的稱之為H.26L的項目的開發。H.26L這個名稱雖然不太常見,但是一直被使用著。H.264是ITU-T以H.26x系列為名稱命名的標準之一,AVC是ISO/IEC MPEG一方的稱呼。
            國際上制定視頻編解碼技術的組織有兩個,一個是“國際電聯(ITU-T)”,它制定的標準有H.261、H.263、H.263+等,另一個是“國際標準化組織(ISO)”它制定的標準有MPEG-1、MPEG-2、MPEG-4等。而H.264則是由兩個組織聯合組建的聯合視頻組(JVT)共同制定的新數字視頻編碼標準,所以它既是ITU-T的H.264,又是ISO/IEC的MPEG-4高級視頻編碼(Advanced Video Coding,AVC)的第10 部分。因此,不論是MPEG-4 AVC、MPEG-4 Part 10,還是ISO/IEC 14496-10,都是指H.264。
            1998年1月份標準開始草案征集,1999年9月,完成第一個草案,2001年5月制定了其測試模式TML-8,2002年6月的 JVT第5次會議通過了H.264的FCD板。2003年3月正式發布。在2005年又開發出了H.264的更高級應用標準MVC 和 SVC 版本。
            國際電聯ITU和MPEG組織在發布了H.264標準之后,很快就發布公告,為下一代視頻編解碼標準H.265征集技術方案。為H.265設定的技術性能指標是:壓縮效率比H.264提高1倍、且不明顯提高編碼和解碼的計算量。據MPEG組織2009年西安會議的回顧,尚無一個技術提案達到上述指標。
            H.264是在MPEG-4技術的基礎之上建立起來的,其編解碼流程主要包括5個部分:幀間和幀內預測(Estimation)、變換(Transform)和反變換、量化(Quantization)和反量化、環路濾波(Loop Filter)、熵編碼(Entropy Coding)。
            H.264標準的主要目標是:與其它現有的視頻編碼標準相比,在相同的帶寬下提供更加優秀的圖象質量。通過該標準,在同等圖象質量下的壓縮效率比以前的標準(MPEG2)提高了2倍左右。
            H.264可以提供11個等級、7個類別的子協議格式(算法),其中等級定義是對外部環境進行限定,例如帶寬需求、內存需求、網絡性能等等。等級越高,帶寬要求就越高,視頻質量也越高。類別定義則是針對特定應用,定義編碼器所使用的特性子集,并規范不同應用環境中的編碼器復雜程度。
    優勢
    1.低碼率(Low Bit Rate):和MPEG2和MPEG4 ASP等壓縮技術相比,在同等圖像質量下,采用H.264技術壓縮后的數據量只有MPEG2的1/8,MPEG4的1/3。
    2.高質量的圖象:H.264能提供連續、流暢的高質量圖象(DVD質量)。
    3.容錯能力強:H.264提供了解決在不穩定網絡環境下容易發生的丟包等錯誤的必要工具。
    4.網絡適應性強:H.264提供了網絡抽象層(Network Abstraction Layer),使得H.264的文件能容易地在不同網絡上傳輸(例如互聯網,CDMA,GPRS,WCDMA,CDMA2000等)。
            H.264最大的優勢是具有很高的數據壓縮比率,在同等圖像質量的條件下,H.264的壓縮比是MPEG-2的2倍以上,是MPEG-4的1.5~2倍。舉個例子,原始文件的大小如果為88GB,采用MPEG-2壓縮標準壓縮后變成3.5GB,壓縮比為25∶1,而采用H.264壓縮標準壓縮后變為879MB,從88GB到879MB,H.264的壓縮比達到驚人的102∶1。低碼率(Low Bit Rate)對H.264的高的壓縮比起到了重要的作用,和MPEG-2和MPEG-4 ASP等壓縮技術相比,H.264壓縮技術將大大節省用戶的下載時間和數據流量收費。尤其值得一提的是,H.264在具有高壓縮比的同時還擁有高質量流暢的圖像,正因為如此,經過H.264壓縮的視頻數據,在網絡傳輸過程中所需要的帶寬更少,也更加經濟。
    H264標準的主要特點如下:
    1.更高的編碼效率:同H.263等標準的特率效率相比,能夠平均節省大于50%的碼率。
    2.高質量的視頻畫面:H.264能夠在低碼率情況下提供高質量的視頻圖像,在較低帶寬上提供高質量的圖像傳輸是H.264的應用亮點。
    3.提高網絡適應能力:H.264可以工作在實時通信應用(如視頻會議)低延時模式下,也可以工作在沒有延時的視頻存儲或視頻流服務器中。
    4.采用混合編碼結構:同H.263相同,H.264也使用采用DCT變換編碼加DPCM的差分編碼的混合編碼結構,還增加了如多模式運動估計、幀內預測、多幀預測、基于內容的變長編碼、4x4二維整數變換等新的編碼方式,提高了編碼效率。
    5.H.264的編碼選項較少:在H.263中編碼時往往需要設置相當多選項,增加了編碼的難度,而H.264做到了力求簡潔的“回歸基本”,降低了編碼時復雜度。
    6.H.264可以應用在不同場合:H.264可以根據不同的環境使用不同的傳輸和播放速率,并且提供了豐富的錯誤處理工具,可以很好的控制或消除丟包和誤碼。
    7.錯誤恢復功能:H.264提供了解決網絡傳輸包丟失的問題的工具,適用于在高誤碼率傳輸的無線網絡中傳輸視頻數據。
    8.較高的復雜度:264性能的改進是以增加復雜性為代價而獲得的。據估計,H.264編碼的計算復雜度大約相當于H.263的3倍,解碼復雜度大約相當于H.263的2倍。

    红运彩
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